The rheological properties of a piece of dough, which govern how it will respond to machining steps in the process, will be determined almost entirely during the early steps of the process.
Many of these rheological properties are a result of ingredient interactions that occur during fermentation and dough mixing. Nearly all of the ingredients affect the rheology of a dough to a certain extent, but most of the properties are derived from the flour, water, yeast and air. Several minor ingredients, such as dough conditioners, salt, fats, enzymes, and emulsifiers, influence the rheology to a lesser degree.
Once a dough is mixed, its final rheological characteristics are set. This is not to say that the dough does not change any more during further processing; in fact, its fundamental mechanical properties change substantially. Rather, nothing further can be added to the dough to alter those characteristics. Any adjustments that are needed to correct processing problems must be made in the settings of the processing equipment or in the time spent during various stages.
Several tests are available, using the TA.XTplus texture analyser, for the assessment of various rheological properties of both the dough and the finished baked product, which we all know and enjoy. Whilst baked products exist in a myriad of forms and with a wide range of desirable properties, the following summarises various standard and widely accepted methods of texture analysis. Various dough testing measurement options are explained and such baked product properties as firmness, springiness and brittleness are outlined.
TESTING ATTACHMENTS FOR BAKERY PRODUCTS
Any of the Stable Micro Systems Texture Analyser range may be used for testing the products listed below. A selection of special attachments and typical measurements are also shown which are commonly used in this application area. However, this does not show the complete range of attachments available for the testing of bakery products. Test procedures include: compression, puncture/penetration, tension, fracture/bending, extrusion (forward and backward), cutting/shearing.
Allows measurement of bread
firmness according to AACC
Standard method 74-09.
|Kieffer Dough & Gluten
A micro-extension solution for
accurate determination of dough
and gluten extensibility.
|Tortilla/Pastry Burst Rig
Has been developed to perform
extension and elasticity measurements
on pastry and tortillas.
Dough Stickiness Rig
Used to investigate the stickiness of
dough in respect of mixing time,
water content, enzyme activity,
wheat variety and composition.
|Dough Preparation Set
Used to measure the firmness/
consistency of biscuit dough.
|Three-point Bend Rig
Used for assessing the fracturability/
break strength of biscuits, cookies
fracturability using a cylinder
|Assessment of the softening of
cooked pie pastry due to moisture
|Assessment of the firmness and
springiness of cake.
Used to determine the toughness
and firmness of bread and other
|Bread V Squeeze Rig
Allows the assessment of
packaged or unpackaged
whole loaf freshness.
|Extended Craft Knife
Enables the use of a thin craft blade
for the cutting of deeper and
Assessment of the firmness and
stickiness of large dough samples.
Compare Texture Analysers - take your choice of instrument
for universal application
with limited capacity
and testing stroke
|Speed Range||0.01 - 40mm/s||0.01 - 40mm/s||0.01 - 10mm/s|
|Maximum Data Acquisition||500pps||500pps||400pps|
|Full Library Test Availability||x||x|
|Full Flexibility of
and Data Analysis
|Ease of Use||x|
Typical measurements include:
Firmness/Softness & Staling (normally associated with an increase/decrease in firmness of bakery products with increasing shelf life) - doughnuts, bread, croissants, biscuits, crackers, cakes, breadsticks, bagels, pizza bases, biscuit dough