The rheological properties of a piece of dough, which govern how it will respond to machining steps in the process, will be determined almost entirely during the early steps of the process.

Many of these rheological properties are a result of ingredient interactions that occur during fermentation and dough mixing. Nearly all of the ingredients affect the rheology of a dough to a certain extent, but most of the properties are derived from the flour, water, yeast and air. Several minor ingredients, such as dough conditioners, salt, fats, enzymes, and emulsifiers, influence the rheology to a lesser degree.

Once a dough is mixed, its final rheological characteristics are set. This is not to say that the dough does not change any more during further processing; in fact, its fundamental mechanical properties change substantially. Rather, nothing further can be added to the dough to alter those characteristics. Any adjustments that are needed to correct processing problems must be made in the settings of the processing equipment or in the time spent during various stages.

Several tests are available, using the TA.XTplus texture analyser, for the assessment of various rheological properties of both the dough and the finished baked product, which we all know and enjoy. Whilst baked products exist in a myriad of forms and with a wide range of desirable properties, the following summarises various standard and widely accepted methods of texture analysis. Various dough testing measurement options are explained and such baked product properties as firmness, springiness and brittleness are outlined.




Any of the Stable Micro Systems Texture Analyser range may be used for testing the products listed below. A selection of special attachments and typical measurements are also shown which are commonly used in this application area. However,  this does not show the complete range of attachments available for the testing of bakery products. Test procedures include: compression, puncture/penetration, tension, fracture/bending, extrusion (forward and backward), cutting/shearing.



cylinder-probe-bread kieffer-dough-gluten-extensibility tortilla-pastry-burst-rig2
36mm Radiused
Cylinder Probe
Allows measurement of bread
firmness according to AACC
Standard method 74-09.
Kieffer Dough & Gluten
Extensibility Rig
A micro-extension solution for
accurate determination of dough
and gluten extensibility.
Tortilla/Pastry Burst Rig
Has been developed to perform
extension and elasticity measurements
on pastry and tortillas.
chen-hoseney-dough-stickiness dough-preparation-set three-point-bend-rig
Dough Stickiness Rig
Used to investigate the stickiness of
dough in respect of mixing time,
water content, enzyme activity,
wheat variety and composition.
Dough Preparation Set
Used to measure the firmness/
consistency of biscuit dough.
Three-point Bend Rig
Used for assessing the fracturability/
break strength of biscuits, cookies
and crackers.
breadcrumb-compressibility cylinder-pie-pastry platen-cake-firmness
Breadcrumb compressibility/
fracturability using a cylinder
Assessment of the softening of
cooked pie pastry due to moisture
Assessment of the firmness and
springiness of cake.
miller-hoseney-toughness-rig2 bread-v-squeeze-rig2 extended-craft-knife2
Toughness Rig
Used to determine the toughness
and firmness of bread and other
sliceable products.
Bread V Squeeze Rig
(Registered Design)
Allows the assessment of
packaged or unpackaged
whole loaf freshness.
Extended Craft Knife
Enables the use of a thin craft blade
for the cutting of deeper and
wider samples.
Warburtons Dough
Stickiness Rig
Assessment of the firmness and
stickiness of large dough samples.
The Texture Analyser Range

Compare Texture Analysers - take your choice of instrument

 compare-plus  compare-hd  compare-express
 taxtplus  tahdplus  taxt-express
Most popular
single column
Texture Analyser
for universal application
High capacity
twin column
Texture Analyser
Simple stand-alone
Texture Analyser
with limited capacity
and testing stroke
Capacity 50kg 750kg 10kg
Speed Range 0.01 - 40mm/s 0.01 - 40mm/s 0.01 - 10mm/s
Maximum Data Acquisition 500pps 500pps 400pps
Full Library Test Availability x x
Full Flexibility of
Test Programming
and Data Analysis
x x
Expandability x x
Ease of Use x
Portability x x

Typical measurements include:

  • Firmness/Softness & Staling (normally associated with an increase/decrease in firmness of bakery products with increasing shelf life) - doughnuts, bread, croissants, biscuits, crackers, cakes, breadsticks, bagels, pizza bases, biscuit dough

  • Extensibility (degree to which a product can be extended before breaking) - dough, gluten, uncooked pastry, tortillas, pancakes, buns, dumplings
  • Crispness/Fracturability - croutons, crackers, breadcrumbs, cooked pastry, wafers, biscuits
  • Adhesiveness/Stickiness - dough, bakery fillings
  • Baked loaf volume and quality predictions: bread
  • Crumb texture and crust effects: bread, pies
  • Compressibility: breadcrumbs
  • Rate of proving: bread dough
  • Toughness: bread, pizza base, pitta bread
  • Tensile strength: bread, tortillas
  • Springiness/rate of recovery/elasticity: bread, cake, steamed bread
  • Consistency: batter
  • Work softening: bakery fats
  • Stable Micro Systems
  • Rudolph Research Analytical
  • Novasina
  • 3NH Colorimeter
  • Triowin